“Globalization as defined by rich people like us is a very nice thing… you are talking about the Internet, you are talking about cell phones, and you are talking about computers. This doesn’t affect two-thirds of the people of the world.” (James Earl Carter)
More probably in the above comment, James Earl Carter talks about globalization in the sense of “Globalization as Technological and Social Revolution” (Simon Reich http://kellogg.nd.edu/publications/workingpapers/WPS/261.pdf). Most commonly or in the general sense globalization is defined by its process. To understand globalization it is important to understand the process of globalization.
“The globalization process involves the establishment of economic, political, social, and technological links among countries.” (Hamilton and Webster http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199213993/hamilton&webster_ch01.pdf). Looking at Globalization from the bigger aspect as defined here we could see that Carter’s comment only can be true or assumed to be true in the technological aspect. The economic, political and social effects of Globalization are completely ignored.
Besides the vast technological impact, even if it has affected only one-third of the population, the economic impact of globalization has changed the course of development and growth in the world. We can see that as a result of globalizations not many new names appear in the list of developed countries but the fast and speedy development and growth of developing countries are very significant. According to IMF report (http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2006/01/pdf/c3.pdf) Inflation dropped significantly around the world in the late 1980s and 1990s because of new emerging Markets, thanks to Globalization. Still, we cannot ignore the challenges present in the case of Economic Development. There is a criticism of Globalization in the case of Economic Development, but not in such extent to undermine the real positive effects of it.
The process of Globalization through trade, business and emerging economies have opened borders between countries. (Suzanne Berger kms1.isn.ethz.ch/…/globalization+2000-005.pdf) Inter-dependency between nations has increased. States have been involved in more dialogues and discussion. This inter-dependency resulted by the process of Globalization can solve long-term dispute between nations and states and it can also strengthen economic, social and political relations of countries.
The social impact of Globalization is closely linked with technological impact. As Carter states only one third of the population of the world has access to technological means, such as mobile phones, computers and the Internet. The important point that should be considered here is not that how many people have been infiltrated but this technological means, including hardware and software, but it should be seen that how have people been affected. The effect can be direct, people who have been exposed to this technological means have been affected directly and indirect where people who have not been exposed to cell phones, computers or Internet but in some way or the other they have been affected by the vast sociological impact of Globalization.
For example, if we take the case of Afghanistan as an example. Being one of the poorest countries with an estimated population of 30 million Afghanistan had no working mobile phone services prior to the year 2000. Now, 12 percent of the population has access to mobile phones and hence to internet services. Around 150,000 people subscribe to cell phone services each month (http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20479899/ns/technology_and_science-wireless/t/cell-phone-use-booming-afghanistan/#.UAanxrRo050), which is indeed a very big number for new subscribers in a month. The use of technology has been part of the causes of the rapid growth of Afghanistan’s GDP and it has not only affected the users but every single Afghan citizen.
In two points one could emphasize on the necessity of the Globalization process. First, it is true that the direct beneficiaries of technology are one third of the population but the rest are in direct beneficiaries. And second, the number of affected population is not limited to one-third, but it is increasing every single minute and at some point every single person will benefit directly or indirectly from the process of Globalization.